Manusmriti In Gujarati Pdf Free EXCLUSIVE 43
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Kautilya, after describing the conflicting views on how to select officials, asserts that a king should select his Amatyah (ministers and high officials) based on the capacity to perform that they have shown in their past work, the character and their values that is accordance with the role. The Amatyah, states Arthashastra, must be those with following Amatya-sampat: well trained, with foresight, with strong memory, bold, well spoken, enthusiastic, excellence in their field of expertise, learned in theoretical and practical knowledge, pure of character, of good health, kind and philanthropic, free from procrastination, free from ficklemindedness, free from hate, free from enmity, free from anger, and dedicated to dharma. Those who lack one or a few of these characteristics must be considered for middle or lower positions in the administration, working under the supervision of more senior officials. The text describes tests to screen for the various Amatya-sampat.
For a woman convicted of murder, the sentence of drowning was executed a month after child birth. Pregnant women were also given free ferry rides. There was severe punishment for aborting a slave woman.
Roger Boesche, who relied entirely on the 1969 translation by Kangle for his analysis of Arthashastra,[note 6] and who criticized an alternative 1992 translation by Rangarajan, has called the Arthashastra as "a great political book of the ancient world". He interprets that the 1st millennium BCE text is grounded more like the Soviet Union and China where the state envisions itself as driven by the welfare of the common good, but operates an extensive spy state and system of surveillance. This view has been challenged by Thomas Trautmann, who asserts that a free market and individual rights, albeit a regulated system, are proposed by Arthashastra. Boesche is not summarily critical and adds:
Thomas Trautmann states that the Arthashastra in chapter 3.9 recognizes the concept of land ownership rights and other private property, and requires the king to protect that right from seizure or abuse. That makes it unlike Soviet or China model of citizen's private property rights. There is no question, states Trautmann, that people had the power to buy and sell land. However, Trautmann adds, this does not mean that Kautilya was advocating a capitalistic free market economy. Kautilya requires that the land sale be staggered and grants certain buyers automatic "call rights", which is not free market. The Arthashastra states that if someone wants to sell land, the owner's kins, neighbors and creditors have first right of purchase in that order, and only if they do not wish to buy the land for a fair competitive price, others and strangers can bid to buy. Further, the price must be announced in front of witnesses, recorded and taxes paid, for the buy-sale arrangement to deemed recognized by the state. The "call rights" and staggered bid buying is not truly a free market, as Trautmann points out.
Vayu Purana has explained that God has six limbs: (1) Sarvagnaata - omniscient or all-knower, (2) Truptira - satiated or satisfied, (3) Anaadibodhaha - with endless knowledge, (4) Svatantrata - independent or free, (5) Nityamaluptadastiha - forever with fair vision or outlook and (6) Ananta Shaktischa - with eternal strength.
Shankracharya explains, 'Those who through renunciation, study, strictness, devotion and absolute meditation, understand the nature of God are freed from the darkness of worldly life.' Smrutis further explain the realisation of God as Sakaar, 'Yogis control their senses and steady them within the mind. They then steady the mind within the Atma (soul). After which, they are able to have Darshan of God Supreme. He is without smoke, but burns like the fire. He is with lustre like the sun; he is like a flash of lightening. Such is he, who is seen by Muktas and Yogis (realised souls) within their hearts. Those who eat less, have a pure mind and who are great intellectuals are able to see God in his greatest of forms.'
Now Shatanand explains the difference between Atma and Paramatma: Atma is a Jivatma's speech. Jivatma is the body of the Paramatma. Jivatma is that which is within the body, which through delusion enjoys worldly pleasures. Only when he is able to realise that he is separate and distinct from Paramatma, which resides within him, is he freed from desire and sin and thus enters the path of God Realisation. Therefore Shrutis preach the distinct nature of Atma and Paramatma. Those that view God in any way other than that described in Sat-Shastras are destined for the hells.
God, who is beyond Maya (illusion) and who is real, must therefore have a place of residence. Thus Shatanand explains the Lord's heaven - Akshardhaam. Chandogyopanishad explains, 'The Lord's abode Brahmpura is true and real (Etat Satyam Brahmpuram). This Brahmloka is free from undesirable qualities.' Mundak Upanishad explains, 'The divine Brahmpura is the abode of Parabrahman.' Thus God is real and he has a place to reside, which is also real. It is also written that the universe resides within God's Dhaam.
Shrimad Bhagwat Gita explains, 'Those Brahmnishtas who go to the heavens are able to attain God. The Sun, Moon nor the Fire need illuminate it. Once there, they never have to return. Such is my great Dhaam.' Mokshadharma explains, 'After reaching the eternal heaven, I became fully satiated.' Bhagwat explains, 'God, who is beyond the darkness of Maya, showed his heaven to the Govarias (cowherds). Genuine, knowledge, eternal, full of lustre and endless is such Brahman Dhaam. Munis (saints), free from the three modes of nature are forever meditating upon God's Dhaam. This great Dhaam called Aksharbrahman, is where the supreme Lord Vishnu resides.'
Vishvaprakash Kosh explains: Maya Dambhe Krupayam Cha - 'Maya is hipocracy and favour.' Similarly Maya has been explained as intellect, compassion and illusion also. Those who are privileged to obtain the heavens become free from Maya inherent in the physical body. God is always beyond Maya as he is supreme and eternal. He is great and beyond ordinary mortal influence. He is the cause of the creation, the maintenance and destruction of this universe and there is nothing beyond his power. Therefore one must understand the nature of God as outlines by Sat-Shastras and never be led astray by those false Shastras which teach the wrong Vedantic philosophy.
Daily means everyday. The firm believers of personal religion mean single - minded devotees of God. The devotees of Vishnu means those souls who are firm in their personal religion and whose sensual desires have extinguished. As per Vishnudharmottar Puran the saint means a person who has become free from the sense objects and has become self renunciated. The companionship of such saints means Darshan of such saints, their Poojan (worship) and Vandan. To be with them is to understand fully well their teaching and preaching. Muni Vasishtha had said that, one should visit the saint daily. Satsang means devotion of God. Therefore, Shrimad Bhagwat says that, as and when a roamer comes into the contact of a Satpurush of God, then through that Satpurush, he becomes a devotee of God. The Katha in the companionship of such Satpurush acts like a medicine for his mind, heart and the senses and gradually, through that Katha (discourse), he progresses gradually in faith, love and devotion - the path of redemption.
Those who are indecent and those who are almost like distracted, become single-minded devotees on serving Satpurush of God. It further adds: One's companionship with a Satpurush of God is million time better than heaven and emancipation. Then what else can be said: Mere remembrance of Satpurush of God, purifies the house of a devotee, then what else would not happen on his Darshan, his touch, on personal service to him and on offering an respectful seat to him ? Neither the shrines with the lakes nor the idols made of stone or mud, because they can purify after a very long period, but the saints would purify us just with a Darshan, "In these, it is said about general companionship of Satpurush, but the objective behind such companionship is the removal of attachment towards body and bodily relation. Therefore householders should practise this companionship. The same scripture says 'Oh king ! Though you reside in your palace, Submit all your household duties at the lotus feet of Lord Vasudev and serve the saints. You will get your self free from the attachment for body, woman and sons with the help of such saints. The process shall be so natural and steadily progressive that you will feel as if you are awakening from a dream. For this, the wise should leave the companionship of evil minded people and should make companionship with the saints. The saints are capable of destroying ill thoughts of mind through their speech. The Saints are the real protection for these perishable human beings. Saints are like a boat to the drowning people. Further it is said that "Food acts as vital-air for the living bodies and I am a real shelter for the sufferers. Religion becomes real wealth for a dying person. Saints are a real shelter for the people who are scared with the fear of death. Saints are the giver of the insight of the knowledge of ultimate, though the sun also gives the light, but that is external. Deities and companions are also saints. And the soul-who is I my self-is also saint. "Oh Lord Vishnu ! Those people who had the companionship of such saints who have been attracted like a bumblebee to relish the fragrance of your lotus-feet, become free from the attachments like body, sons, friends, estates, wealth and woman. 'One who does not serve the holy feet of Satpurush, remains untouched by the lotus feet of Lord which are the destroyer of evil.
The Smritis have said that Darshan of the Janmashthmi etc. festival at the temple destroys the sins and makes one pure again. Even in view of this glorious dictum, one should not leave his personal religion of not entering the temple along with the woman. Also one should not leave personal religion on the following objection too. "Devotion becomes firmer with the religion." 'Religion has come from my devotion'. Bhakti - yoga described through such sentences, makes religious people free from the fears. All these sentences prove the strength of religion and therefore devotion bears no fruits in absence of the religion. Therefore, Parashar Geeta says that wise people do not perform such rewardful great acts, which are not supported by religion. They do not even recognize such as a 'reward'. Ved Vyas has said in Bharat Savitri : The religion which is the very cause of life should not be given away just due to sensuous pleasures, fears or temptations. Naradji also says that the householder who leaves his work, the celibate who leaves his celibacy, the ascetic who lives with in the community and the beggar who desires sensual pleasures are ugly blots to their respective Ashram and are big trouble for the Ashram. Ignore them with pity as they have lost wisdom under the spell of the Maya of God. Pancham Skandh prescribes hell for those who abandon their religion. Those who walk away from the Vedic path without any objection and accept hypocritical path are punished with hellish pounder by sending them in the forest of the blade-sharp leaves. The soul, so punished, runs aimlessly due to fear of the pounder behind him and injures him self with blade-sharp leaves; pain and profuse bleeding makes him unconscious and drops him on the ground on each trembling step. Those who leave their own religion and practise the hypocrite-one face such punishments. 2b1af7f3a8