History Of Subcontinent From 712 To 1947 In Urdu Pdf Free !!EXCLUSIVE!!
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From 1947 onwards, when migrants from India, known as the Mohājirs, came to Sindh, the repertoire that dominated the local religiosity was that of a vernacular Sufism, to which both Sindhi Muslims and Hindus of all faiths subscribed. Consequently, in the competition between Sindhis and Mohājirs for the domination of the city of Hyderabad, negotiations between different religious repertoires played a prominent role. My hypothesis is that the Mawlā jā Qadam represented a crucial stake in the showdown between the Sindhis and the Mohājirs, more than a vector for the integration of the Mohājirs in the urban landscape. In what follows, I will demonstrate that, although the onomastic change of the site unambiguously indicates its coming under the control of the Mohājirs, as explained below, the ritual practices show a resilience of the vernacular Sufi substratum of Sindh.
In 1947, after the British left, South Asia went through a very traumatic event, known as the partition. Two Nation-States were born from it, India, and Pakistan, a country created to house the Muslim population of the former British Empire of India. Millions of people migrated from one country to the other, and vice versa. Before the partition, Hyderabad was inhabited by a Hindu majority, but most of them left for India, and simultaneously, Muslim migrants arrived from India. In 1951, i.e. four years after the partition, the migrants in Hyderabad numbered 160,000 on a total of 240,000 inhabitants (Verkaaik, 1994: 95). The migrants that were called Mohājirs by the Sindhis mostly came from North India, and they spoke Urdu. The majority belonged to the educated middle classes. For the Sindhis it was logical to give them the administrative positions the Hindus had left.
The known history of India begins with the Indus Valley Civilization, which spread and flourished in the north-western part of the Indian subcontinent, from c. 3300 to 1300 BCE. Its Mature Harappan period lasted from 2600-1900 BCE. This Bronze Age civilization collapsed at the beginning of the second millennium BCE and was followed by the Iron Age Vedic period, which extended over much of the Indo-Gangetic plains and which witnessed the rise of major kingdoms known as the Mahajanapadas. In one of these kingdoms Magadha, Mahavira and Gautama Buddha were born in the 6th century BCE, who propagated their Shramanic philosophies among the masses.
Kerala had maritime business links with the Roman Empire from around AD 77. Muslim rule in the subcontinent began in 712 CE when the Arab general Muhammad bin Qasim conquered Sindh and Multan in southern Punjab,setting the stage for several successive invasions between the 10th and15th centuries CE from Central Asia, leading to the formation of Muslimempires in the Indian subcontinent such as the Delhi Sultanate and the Mughal Empire.Mughal rule came to cover most of the northern parts of thesubcontinent. Mughal rulers introduced middle-eastern art andarchitecture to India. In addition to the Mughals and various Rajput kingdoms, several independent Hindu states, such as the Vijayanagara Empire, the Maratha Empire and the Ahom Kingdom, flourished contemporaneously in Southern, Western and North-EasternIndia respectively. The Mughal Empire suffered a gradual decline in theearly eighteenth century, which provided opportunities for the Afghans, Balochis and Sikhs to exercise control over large areas in the northwest of the subcontinent until the British East India Company gained ascendancy over South Asia.
During the first half of the 20th century, a nationwide struggle for independence was launched by the Indian National Congress, and later joined by the Muslim League. The subcontinent gained independence from Great Britain in 1947, after being partitioned into the dominions of India and Pakistan.
The civilization flourished from about 2600 BCE to 1900 BCE markedthe beginning of the urban civilization on the subcontinent. Theancient civilization included urban centers such as Dholavira, Kalibangan, Rupar, Rakhigarhi, Lothal in modern day India and Harappa, Ganeriwala, Mohenjo-daro in modern day Pakistan. The civilization is noted for its cities built of brick, road-side drainage system and multi-storied houses.
The middle period was a time of notable cultural development. The Satavahanas, also known as the Andhras, was a dynasty which ruled in Southern and Central India starting from around 230 BCE. Satakarni, the sixth ruler of the Satvahana dynasty, defeated the Sunga dynasty of North India. Gautamiputra Satakarni was another notable ruler of the dynasty. Kuninda Kingdom was a small Himalayan state that survived from around the 2nd century BCE to roughly the 3rd century CE. The Kushanasinvaded north-western India about the middle of the 1st century CE,from Central Asia, and founded an empire that eventually stretched fromPeshawar to the middle Ganges and, perhaps, as far as the Bay of Bengal. It also included ancient Bactria (in the north of modern Afghanistan) and southern Tajikistan. The Western Satraps (35-405 CE) were Sakarulers of the western and central part of India. They were thesuccessors of the Indo-Scythians (see below) and contemporaneous withthe Kushans who ruled the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, andthe Satavahana (Andhra) who ruled in Central India.
The north-western hybrid cultures of the subcontinent included the Indo-Greeks, the Indo-Scythians, the Indo-Parthians, and the Indo-Sassinids. The first of these, the Indo-Greek Kingdom, founded when the Greco-Bactrian king Demetriusinvaded the region in 180 BCE, extended over various parts ofpresent-day Afghanistan and Pakistan. Lasting for almost two centuries,it was ruled by a succession of more than 30 Greek kings, who wereoften in conflict with each other. The Indo-Scythians was a branch of the Indo-European Sakas (Scythians), who migrated from southern Siberia first into Bactria, subsequently into Sogdiana, Kashmir, Arachosia, Gandharaand finally into India; their kingdom lasted from the middle of the 2ndcentury BCE to the 1st century BCE. Yet another kingdom, the Indo-Parthians (also known as Pahlavas) came to control most of present-day Afghanistan and northern Pakistan, after fighting many local rulers such as the Kushan ruler Kujula Kadphises, in the Gandhara region. The Sassanidempire of Persia, who were contemporaries of the Guptas, expanded intothe region of present-day Pakistan, where the mingling of Indian and Persian cultures gave birth to the Indo-Sassanid culture.
After the Arab invasion of India's ancient western neighbour Persia,expanding forces in that area were keen to invade India, which was therichest classical civilization, with a flourishing international tradeand the only known diamond mines in the world. After resistance for afew centuries by various north Indian kingdoms, short lived Islamicempires (Sultanates) were established and spread across the northern subcontinent over a period of a few centuries. But, prior to Turkic invasions,Muslim trading communities had flourished throughout coastal SouthIndia, particularly in Kerala, where they arrived in small numbers,mainly from the Arabian peninsula, through trade links via the IndianOcean. However, this had marked the introduction of an Abrahamic Middle Eastern religion in Southern India's pre-existing Indian religions, often in puritanical form. Later, the Bahmani Sultanate and Deccan Sultanates flourished in the south.
The British East India Company had been given permission by the Mughal emperor Jahangir in 1617 to trade in India. Gradually their increasing influence led the de-jure Mughal emperor Farrukh Siyar to grant them dastaks or permits for duty free trade in Bengal in 1717. The Nawab of Bengal Siraj Ud Daulah, the de facto ruler of the Bengal province, opposed British attempts to use these permits. This led to the Battle of Plassey in 1757, in which the 'army' of East India Company, led by Robert Clive,defeated the Nawab's forces. This was the first political foothold withterritorial implications that the British acquired in India. Clive wasappointed by the Company as its first 'Governor of Bengal' in 1757. After the Battle of Buxar in 1764, the Company acquired the civil rights of administration in Bengal from the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II;it marked the beginning of its formal rule, which was to engulfeventually most of India and extinguish the Moghul rule and dynastyitself in a century. The East India Company monopolized the trade of Bengal. They introduced a land taxation system called the Permanent Settlement which introduced a feudal-like structure (See Zamindar)in Bengal. By the 1850s, the East India Company controlled most of theIndian sub-continent, which included present-day Pakistan andBangladesh. Their policy was sometimes summed up as Divide and Rule, taking advantage of the enmity festering between various princely states and social and religious groups. 2b1af7f3a8